Health inequities are related to social determinants based on gender, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, race, living in a specific geographic region, or having a specific health condition. Such inequities were reviewed for blindness and visual impairment by searching for studies on the subject in PubMed from 2000 to 2011 in the English and Spanish languages. The goal of this article is to provide a current review in understanding how inequities based specifically on the aforementioned social determinants on health influence the prevalence of visual impairment and blindness.
Purpose. To determine whether types of optical correction for refractive error are associated with sex, social class, and occupational group in the working population.
Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out among employees in Catalonia (Spain) aged 16 to 65 years who underwent the Asepeyo Prevention Society health examination in 2009 (86,831 participants: 59,397 men and 27,421 women). The type and purpose of refractive correction used were self-reported, as were sociodemographic variables; visual
L'objectiu d'aquest article és determinar la prevalença de defectes visuals a Catalunya i analitzar les desigualtats en visió.
Estudi transversal en població major de15 anys d'edat (7.881 homes i 8.045 dones) a partir de les dades de l'Enquesta de Salut de Catalunya de 2006. Es van usar models de regressió logística per calcular les odds ràtio ajustades per edat, estat civil, nivell d'estudis, nivell d'ingressos i situació laboral amb un interval de confiança (IC) del 95%.
Visual impairment and blindness in spanish adults: geographic inequalities are not explained by age or education
Objectives: The objectives of this study were to examine for the first time the prevalence of visual impairment and blindness among adults in Spain, to explore regional differences, and to assess whether they may vary as a function of sex or be explained by age and individual or regional socioeconomic position.
Design: Data were obtained from the 2008 Spanish Survey on Disability, Personal Autonomy, and Dependency Situations, a cross-sectional survey based on a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized population of Spain.